Double stranded RNA is processed differently in two oyster species

Ostreid herpes virus causes serious disease in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), but not in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). To investigate differences in disease progression, we injected oysters with double stranded RNA (dsRNA). dsRNA is known to mimic viral infection, and can evoke immune responses when Toll-like receptors detect the dsRNA, leading to … Continue reading Double stranded RNA is processed differently in two oyster species

Recent findings on phenoloxidases in bivalves

The production of melanin is a complex process involving biochemical cascades, such as the pro-phenoloxidase (proPO) system, and enzymes, such as phenoloxidases (POs). Different studies have shown a strong correlation between the decrease in PO activities and the occurrence of diseases in bivalve invertebrates, leading to mortalities in the host. Results of these studies suggest … Continue reading Recent findings on phenoloxidases in bivalves

An approach to the study of the immunity functions of bivalve haemocytes: Physiology and molecular aspects

The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an ecologically and economically important species. It has been used in programs of monitoring of pollutions, since it is sessile organism that is capable of accumulating pollutants in tissues through filter feeding. Due to an increase of pollutants in the environment, marine mussels present physiological alterations that compromise their … Continue reading An approach to the study of the immunity functions of bivalve haemocytes: Physiology and molecular aspects

Microbial Diseases of Bivalve Mollusks: Infections, Immunology and Antimicrobial Defense

A variety of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) constitute a prominent commodity in fisheries and aquacultures, but are also crucial in order to preserve our ecosystem’s complexity and function. Bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, are relevant bred species, and their global farming maintains a high incremental annual growth rate, representing … Continue reading Microbial Diseases of Bivalve Mollusks: Infections, Immunology and Antimicrobial Defense

The oyster immunity

Oysters, the common name for a number of different bivalve molluscs, are the worldwide aquaculture species and also play vital roles in the function of ecosystem. As invertebrate, oysters have evolved an integrated, highly complex innate immune system to recognize and eliminate various invaders via an array of orchestrated immune reactions, such as immune recognition, … Continue reading The oyster immunity

Immunotoxicity of nanoparticle nTiO2 to a commercial marine bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa

The increasing production and extensive application of nanoparticles (NPs) inevitably leads to increased release of NPs into the marine environment and therefore poses a potential threat to marine organisms, especially the sessile benthic bivalves. However, the impacts of NPs on the immunity of commercial and ecological important bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa, still remain unknown to … Continue reading Immunotoxicity of nanoparticle nTiO2 to a commercial marine bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa

Molecular characterization and antibacterial activity of a phage-type lysozyme from the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum

A phage-type lysozyme, designed as RpPLYZ, was cloned and characterized from the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The full-length cDNA of RpPLYZ was of 699 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 534 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 177-amino acid with a calculated molecular mass of 19.6 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.05. Multiple alignments and … Continue reading Molecular characterization and antibacterial activity of a phage-type lysozyme from the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum