Double stranded RNA is processed differently in two oyster species

Ostreid herpes virus causes serious disease in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), but not in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). To investigate differences in disease progression, we injected oysters with double stranded RNA (dsRNA). dsRNA is known to mimic viral infection, and can evoke immune responses when Toll-like receptors detect the dsRNA, leading to … Continue reading Double stranded RNA is processed differently in two oyster species

Invertebrate Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Treatment

Neoplasia is a documented occurrence across invertebrate taxa, but challenges remain with regard to tumor diagnosis, identification, and treatment. Literature reports of neoplasia are frequent in mollusks and insects, infrequent in Cnidaria and crustaceans, and are yet to be documented in Porifera and Echinodermata. The use of traditional methods of diagnosis in veterinary medicine is … Continue reading Invertebrate Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Treatment

Recent findings on phenoloxidases in bivalves

The production of melanin is a complex process involving biochemical cascades, such as the pro-phenoloxidase (proPO) system, and enzymes, such as phenoloxidases (POs). Different studies have shown a strong correlation between the decrease in PO activities and the occurrence of diseases in bivalve invertebrates, leading to mortalities in the host. Results of these studies suggest … Continue reading Recent findings on phenoloxidases in bivalves

An approach to the study of the immunity functions of bivalve haemocytes: Physiology and molecular aspects

The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an ecologically and economically important species. It has been used in programs of monitoring of pollutions, since it is sessile organism that is capable of accumulating pollutants in tissues through filter feeding. Due to an increase of pollutants in the environment, marine mussels present physiological alterations that compromise their … Continue reading An approach to the study of the immunity functions of bivalve haemocytes: Physiology and molecular aspects

Microbial Diseases of Bivalve Mollusks: Infections, Immunology and Antimicrobial Defense

A variety of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) constitute a prominent commodity in fisheries and aquacultures, but are also crucial in order to preserve our ecosystem’s complexity and function. Bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, are relevant bred species, and their global farming maintains a high incremental annual growth rate, representing … Continue reading Microbial Diseases of Bivalve Mollusks: Infections, Immunology and Antimicrobial Defense

Parasitism by a Digenea in Lucina pectinata (Mollusca: Lucinidae)

Lucina pectinata is an important economic resource in the Brazilian coast. This study reports parasitism caused by a Digenea in this species. The specimens (n = 470) were collected in December 2012 in a mangrove swamp of the Cachoeira River estuary, Bahia, Brazil. They were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length), and after macroscopic analysis … Continue reading Parasitism by a Digenea in Lucina pectinata (Mollusca: Lucinidae)

Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of Fish and Shellfish

There has been a continual expansion in aquaculture, such that total production is fast approaching that of wild-caught fisheries. Yet the expansion is marred by continued problems of disease. New pathogens emerge, and others become associated with new conditions. Some of these pathogens become well established, and develop into major killers of aquatic species. Diagnosis … Continue reading Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of Fish and Shellfish