Recent findings on phenoloxidases in bivalves

The production of melanin is a complex process involving biochemical cascades, such as the pro-phenoloxidase (proPO) system, and enzymes, such as phenoloxidases (POs). Different studies have shown a strong correlation between the decrease in PO activities and the occurrence of diseases in bivalve invertebrates, leading to mortalities in the host. Results of these studies suggest … Continue reading Recent findings on phenoloxidases in bivalves

An approach to the study of the immunity functions of bivalve haemocytes: Physiology and molecular aspects

The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an ecologically and economically important species. It has been used in programs of monitoring of pollutions, since it is sessile organism that is capable of accumulating pollutants in tissues through filter feeding. Due to an increase of pollutants in the environment, marine mussels present physiological alterations that compromise their … Continue reading An approach to the study of the immunity functions of bivalve haemocytes: Physiology and molecular aspects

Microbial Diseases of Bivalve Mollusks: Infections, Immunology and Antimicrobial Defense

A variety of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) constitute a prominent commodity in fisheries and aquacultures, but are also crucial in order to preserve our ecosystem’s complexity and function. Bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, are relevant bred species, and their global farming maintains a high incremental annual growth rate, representing … Continue reading Microbial Diseases of Bivalve Mollusks: Infections, Immunology and Antimicrobial Defense

First haplosporidan parasite reported infecting a member of the Superfamily Pinnoidea (Pinna nobilis) during a mortality event in Alicante (Spain, Western Mediterranean)

Several stages of a haplosporidan parasite, including spores, were detected infecting three out of four specimens of the Pen Shell Pinna nobilis from the coast of Alicante (Western Mediterranean). A mortality event initiated few weeks before the sampling. The infection was systemic in the connective tissue, with free uni-nucleate stages and early plasmodia, whereas sporulation … Continue reading First haplosporidan parasite reported infecting a member of the Superfamily Pinnoidea (Pinna nobilis) during a mortality event in Alicante (Spain, Western Mediterranean)

Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of Fish and Shellfish

There has been a continual expansion in aquaculture, such that total production is fast approaching that of wild-caught fisheries. Yet the expansion is marred by continued problems of disease. New pathogens emerge, and others become associated with new conditions. Some of these pathogens become well established, and develop into major killers of aquatic species. Diagnosis … Continue reading Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of Fish and Shellfish

Immunotoxicity of nanoparticle nTiO2 to a commercial marine bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa

The increasing production and extensive application of nanoparticles (NPs) inevitably leads to increased release of NPs into the marine environment and therefore poses a potential threat to marine organisms, especially the sessile benthic bivalves. However, the impacts of NPs on the immunity of commercial and ecological important bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa, still remain unknown to … Continue reading Immunotoxicity of nanoparticle nTiO2 to a commercial marine bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa

Seasonal variation of transcriptomic and biochemical parameters of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) related to their infection by trematode parasites

Bivalve populations are controlled by several biotic and abiotic factors. Parasitism is among the biotic factors but is often neglected. In the present study, we focused on the transcriptomic and biochemical responses of Cerastoderma edule when parasitized as first intermediate host by the trematode Bucephalus minimus (sporocyst, the most damaging stage), and taking into account … Continue reading Seasonal variation of transcriptomic and biochemical parameters of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) related to their infection by trematode parasites