This study investigated the effects of hypoxia on oxidative stress response and immune function in mussels Perna perna exposed to air for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. In air-exposed mussels, the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were lower in gill tissues (24–48 h) and digestive gland (12 h), while the glutathione peroxidase and GR activities were increased in the digestive gland (48 h). In both tissues, aerial exposure promoted a rapid (6 h) and persistent (up to 48 h) increase of glutathione levels. Decreased hemocyte count and viability, as well as increased phagocytic activity and cellular adhesion capacity were detected after prolonged aerial exposure (>12 h). In summary, induction of thiol pools, altered antioxidant enzyme activities, and activation of immune responses were detected in hypoxia exposed brown mussels, indicating hypoxia induced tissue-specific responses in both antioxidant and immune systems.
Lílian Nogueira, Danielle Ferraz Mello, Rafael Trevisan, Danielly Garcia, Daiane da Silva Acosta, Alcir Luiz Dafre, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Marine Environmental Research, Volume 126, May 2017, Pages 109–115