Enhancing growth and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus disease in catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus) with Bacillus and Lactobacillus probiotic strains during early development

In bivalve aquaculture, selecting suitable probiotic treatments can be crucial for improving hatchery-rearing of larvae and juveniles. We assessed the potential of five bacterial strains, previously selected in vitro, to improve survival, growth and resistance of catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus during early and late larval and juvenile developmental stages, as well as during exposure to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. Hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles were treated with eight treatments of single or combined strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus at 1 × 106 CFU mL−1 every 48 h for 9 days (larvae) and 21 days (juveniles). Compared with the control, significantly higher survival and growth in size and weight of early veliger larvae occurred with the antibiotic and the RL5 (Lactobacillus graminis) treatments. Significantly enhanced settlement of pediveliger larvae occurred with a different probiotic strain, the mix of Lactobacillus and Bacillus (MIX-LB), while higher survival and growth of early juveniles occurred with C3 (Lactobacillus plantarum). The mix of Bacillus (MIX-B) significantly increased survival of juveniles from V. alginolyticus after 120-h infection, consistent with maximum activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. In contrast, all untreated and infected scallops died by 96 h. The three Bacillus strains performed poorly when used as single treatments and when given to early developing larvae. Our results indicate that the action mechanism of probiotic strains is stage specific and strain specific, generating different responses by the host, including improved survival and growth (likely from better nutrient assimilation) and higher resistance against pathogens (possibly from strengthening the immune system).

Fernando Abasolo-Pacheco, Ángel I Campa-Córdova, José M Mazón-Suástegui, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez, Rubén Araya, Pedro E Saucedo, Aquaculture Research, online version, 28 february 2017

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